When Disasters strike, Satellites come calling

Huddled in an inconspicuous corner, eyes transfixed on their computer monitors, a group of young experts wait for satellite images to arrive. A disaster has just struck Indonesia, and the twin impact of the earthquake and the tsunami it triggered could be devastating. The initial ping about an impending disaster has proved true, and the International Disaster Charter has just been activated.

Five-thousand kilometers away from the disaster zone centered on Palu in Indonesia, the team of disaster experts has assembled at the Geoinformatics Center (GIC) of the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) in Thailand. Having been nominated as the project manager under the Global Disaster Charter, they will be the single access point for satellite information that will start flowing from all over the world.

As images start arriving, the trickle of satellite data turns into a virtual flood as numerous satellites reorient themselves towards the disaster area and start beaming the latest images. As a member of the disaster team, Syams Nashrrullah has worked on disasters before. This is the third disaster charter activation in 2018, which included the floods in Japan, the earthquake in Lombok, and now the Sulawesi disaster.

Asked to compare the Lombok and the Sulawesi disasters, Syams says: “The scale was totally different. Sulawesi was not only a bigger disaster, but it combined both an earthquake and a tsunami.” Narrating the sequence of events, Syams reveals that the first major public release of satellite information was the image received from the Pleiades satellite. Working with the National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN) and the Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB) in Indonesia, they processed and released the image, which proved a boon for aid and humanitarian relief workers and was quickly reproduced in dozens of news outlets and websites.

The satellite data generated by AIT and partner organizations was used by local governments and armed forces to conduct emergency rescue and relief operations. It also helped arrive at an initial estimate that close to 5,000 buildings and structures had suffered major damage, particularly in Palu (the estimate has now passed 8,000).

The data contained information up to a resolution of 50 centimeters and was the first publicly accessible set of images showing the extent of the damage. A comparison of the same area prior to and following the disaster was a telling example of how remote sensing now enables swifter and more efficient post-disaster management efforts. Shortly afterwards came another satellite image, and this provided even more detailed information. This Digital Globe image showed greater details and covered an even larger area. Nearly 500 such images arrived, and after initial screening, close to one-fifth were processed by AIT’s GIC courtesy of free satellite data supplied by numerous providers from all over the world.

This was the first step. A few days later, it was time for some ground-truthing. Among those stationed in the field to collect data and photographs was Dr. Firman Hadi, a research specialist at GIC. After waiting two days at the Mutiara airport, Firman joined a team of humanitarian aid workers for a 10-hour journey to Palu, the capital of Central Sulawesi Province. What greeted him was ruin, devastation, and the phenomenon of liquefaction at four locations — Petobo, Balaroa, Jono Oge, and Sibalaya. He spent six days taking photographs, geotagging images with locational data, adding the required geographical information to the photographs, and coordinating with local agencies to help assess damage to buildings.

A week later, a full-fledged web-based portal had been established. Based on a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) platform, the portal provides satellite data and analytics, which along with field data permit an assessment of damage to buildings and infrastructure. The new portal builds on the nearly 500 satellite images that were analyzed following the disaster, including the pre- and post-disaster images obtained by AIT from leading providers of satellite images worldwide to conduct an assessment of the damage caused. “The portal goes beyond the initial remote sensing assessment, since we have access to considerable field data,” says Dr. Manzul Hazarika, Director of GIC.

“Our new web-based GIS platform puts the number of damaged buildings at 8,128,” says Dr. Hazarika. It has village-level details of the damage, with Palu Barat (2,933 buildings) and Palu Selatan (2,258 buildings) accounting for most of the damage. Similarly, the team helped map losses in health facilities, educational buildings, government offices, and roads.

Still, there is a long way to go. “A damaged airport, impassable roads, and damaged power lines have hampered efforts to assist remote regions,” adds Dr. Hazarika. But satellite images help identify the roads that are damaged and suggest alternative routes that enable faster access.

The combined efforts of numerous research organizations, satellite agencies, universities, and research institutes provide a stellar example of how satellite images and remote sensing coupled with Geographical Information Systems have metamorphosed the entire gamut of disaster relief.

Published in ReliefWeb at this link: https://reliefweb.int/report/indonesia/when-disasters-strike-satellites-come-calling 

The Return of the Newspaper

Who is a Sikh? Here are four definitions!

Who is a Sikh?

There are four prevalent definitions on the issue of “Who is a Sikh?” Here is my article from The Indian Express.

4definitionsofSikh.jpg

Definition 1

Sikh Code of Conduct (or Sikh Rehat Maryada) published by the apex body managing Sikh religious places. Article 1 says:

“Any human being who faithfully believes in
i. One Immortal Being,
ii. Ten Gurus, from Guru Nanak Sahib to Guru Gobind Singh Sahib,
iii. The Guru Granth Sahib,
iv. The utterances and teachings of the ten Gurus and
v. the baptism bequeathed by the tenth Guru, and who does not owe allegiance to any other religion, is a Sikh.”

Definition 2

The Sikh Gurdwara Act 1925 (Act 8 of 1925) (Page 27)

“Sikh” means a person who professes the Sikh religion or, Sikh.
in the case of a deceased person, who professed the Sikh
religion or was known to be a Sikh during his lifetime.

Further, “If any question arises as to whether any living person is or is
not a Sikh, he shall be deemed respectively to be or not to be
a Sikh according as he makes or refuses to make in such
manner as the ‘[State] Government may prescribe the
following declaration:-
I solemnly affirm that I am a Sikh, that I believe in the Guru
Granth Sahib, that I believe in the Ten Gurus, and thai I have
no other religion.”

Definition 3

The Delhi Sikh Gurdwaras Act, 1971

“Sikh” means a person who professes the Sikh religion, believes and follows the teachings of Sri Guru Granth Sahib and the ten Gurus only and keeps unshorn hair.”

Definition 4

SGPC educational institutions have provided for additional conditions. However, this is an admission requirement, rather than an Act passed by the state legislature or the Union Parliament. SGPC itself is a creation of the Sikh Gurdwara Act of 1925.

This is an extension of Definition 1 where the SGPC postulates that for admission in SGPC-run institutions, Sikh students should have affixed Singh or Kaur to their name, and wearing a turban is a must for boys.

Note: These are legal definitions, and though largely derived from Sikh texts, the theological interpretation may vary.

etc

Two of my stories are among the exhibits at Newseum, the world’s biggest museum of Newspapers

One of them is on Kalpana Chawla, who graduated from Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh, which is also my alma matter, which grants a certain distinctiveness to this obituary.

 

Stories (being updated)

Project Syndicate

Bangkok Post

Times of India

Hindustan Times

Mint

The Indian Express

Dawn

Manuals

UN

Details of stories…

2018

Project Syndicate: Making Newspapers Great Again

Bangkok Post: Your food waste can power a thousand (or more) lightbulbs

ReliefWeb: When Disasters strike, Satellites come calling

Daily O: Remembering Kuldip Nayar, an uncompromising editor, a conscience-keeper and India-Pakistan peacenik

2017

Dawn: When Indira Gandhi was unseated by the judiciary

Daily O: Dipa, Usha, Milkha: Is India in love with the 4th place at Olympics?

What climate negotiators in Paris forgot – 10 reasons why Trump is an extreme event

A to Z of Punjab, politics and polls

2016

Delhi homeowners shut doors on Muslim tenants: UN varsity study

Why Ram Mohammad Singh Azad, and not Taimur, is the best Indian name

How demonetisation could stop Indian students from studying abroad

Why is Manmohan’s Sri Sri connection important for White House?

Why it’s hard to believe a meteorite killed Tamil Nadu man

Francois Hollande’s visit to Chandigarh’s Rock Garden will evoke memories of India’s Partition

2015

Sundar Pichai is from IIT, routine or surprising?

Why Indian submission at Paris Climate Change Conference is unique

Hark world leaders! Pole-to-Paris mission spreads message on climate change

Why US is seeing a 30 per cent jump in Indian students

Is that Ravana guarding the Thailand airport?

India and China must not take Paris Climate Conference lightly 

Thailand’s Museum of Corruption shames everyone, and no one

Punjab’s Malerkotla memorial symbolises the violent divide over meat ban

When Vajpayee got Nawaz Sharif to speak to Dilip Kumar

Why we need to worry about the Grey Wolves of Turkey

How social media ‘sleuths’ are killing the Bangkok bombings probe

Bangkok bombings: An internal conspiracy or external terror?

Spock’s Indian Connect: The Sikh Diaspora Again

Spice of life: Remembering five-point-five someone

2014

Change head!!8 Indians pale in comparison with 163 Chinese in list of highly-cited researchers

Thailand’s Indians hope for stability, peace after coup

Cracking the ranking code

Pritam Singh lone Punjabi winner in Singapore elections 

Singapore’s founding father Lee Kuan Yew’s Punjab link

2008

Wheat selling below support price, puts govt in a quandary

Food prices could decline as global rice output grows by 1%

Former Punjab CM Amarinder expelled from assembly

Haryana, Punjab in face-off over Sikh shrines

PepsiCo to roll out weather insurance for farmers in 10 states

Akali Dal delinks nuke pact from trust vote, to go with NDA

Punjab short of hands

India’s food bowl to get limited waiver benefits

Labour scarcity promotes use of transplanters in Punjab

For India’s cotton farmers, early rains could spell disaster

India could be net importer by 2020

No ray of hope as paddy sowing costs shoot up in Punjab

Novel based on the life of CPM’s Surjeet may kick up a storm

Rains hit Himachal’s apple crop

Colder and longer winter boosts wheat production in Punjab

In rural Punjab, drinking water is becoming a silent killer: study

BJP tries to expand reach in rural Punjab, goes up against Akali Dal

2005

Someone is reading your email

2004

Spring in the autumn of the patriarch

1998

Clash of the titans

Who is a Sikh?